Transnational Forms of Contemporary Neo-Nazi Activity in Europe from the Perspective of Czech Neo-Nazis
The objective of this monograph is to uncover and map out the ways in which the European neo-Nazi movement engages transnationally by gaining insights from the behaviour patterns of Czech neo-Nazis. It is theoretically grounded in Sidney Tarrow's theory of social movements and their transnationalization. The methodological toolbox comprises conceptions and methods used in social movement research. Content Analysis and Protest Event Analysis are used to determine framing and develop a repertoire of Czech neo-Nazi collective events with a transnational dimension. The ideological framing of neo-Nazism and its vision of Europe are also explored. Transnationalisation is investigated at three levels: the ideological, the conceptual and the practical (involving specific events in public space).
The transnational thematic framing of Czech neo-Nazism is identified as it relates to the master frame of European neo-Nazism; to Czech neo-Nazi involvement in the European neo-Nazi movement when it comes to collective events; to transnational concepts that have found resonance in the Czech environment; and to the presence in Czech neo-Nazi actions of individual processes Tarrow identifies as elements of transnational protest.
Results from the content analysis and protest event analysis reveal Czech neo-Nazis are clearly interested in integrating into the European neo-Nazi movement. Themes contained within the master frame of the European neo-Nazi movement are also found within the Czech neo-Nazi frame, showing they are fully reflected within the Czech environment. Where differences arise, they lie in the way physical actions enacted in public space are framed – during demonstrations, concerts, and so on – and in the framing of the movement in virtual space.
Beyond thematic framing, Czech neo-Nazis show their interest in transnationalisation in terms of specific collective events that supplement words with action. A decided increase is visible in activity on the transnational level by Czech neo-Nazis between 2007-2012. It comprises events organized in the CR with the presence of foreign actors, events without their presence but within a transnational frame, and events abroad in which Czech neo-Nazis took part.
Also present in the Czech neo-Nazi environment are concepts that have resonance with the extreme right. These are concepts that provide Czech neo-Nazis with an instruction guide on how to get organized, what themes to highlight and how to present themselves in interactions with the external environment. They give tangible expression to the master frame in a way which allows the neo-Nazi movement to react to contemporary sensibilities. Within the Czech environment, the concepts in question derive from Autonomous Nationalism and the Straight Edge, HardBass, CasaPound and Identitarian movements.
What emerges from the analysis is an image of the European neo-Nazi movement that rests upon three pillars: ideology or framing, concept, and concrete collective events. The theory of social movements and their transnationalisation may be used to identify internalization and externalization as the key transnational processes in the Czech neo-Nazi movement. These are complemented by processes of global framing and conceptual diffusion.
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